Thursday, October 17, 2019

Provide an explanation that reconciles this research finding with Coursework

Provide an explanation that reconciles this research finding with expectancy theory - Coursework Example Expectation theory operates on the premise that people choose a certain course of action because they find it more rewarding because of the desirable outcome. This desirable outcome can come in several ways either that the individual will become more successful and/or that there is remuneration that awaits for choosing such course of action. We can set the example in a sales organization where sales people are given high quotas which entail high compensation in the form of commissions and salaries and other perks (including recognition and possible promotion) and mediocre quotas where they are only given basic pay. Sales people will tend to prefer the more difficult goal of having high quota because its outcome is more rewarding and desirable. In sum, when difficult goals are established that it is more rewarding and has more desirable outcome, individuals would prefer it rather than mediocre goals that has little reward or less desirable

Tax cases and internal research memo Assignment

Tax cases and internal research memo - Assignment Example In this particular case, Artnell Company has faced obligation from the court of the United States regarding its transferee and tax payment. In this regard, it has been recognized that the issues has upraised from the deferral operations of its assets and liabilities. As an effect, it has been observed that the company has not been able to recognize its actual income due to irregularity. As a consequence, the company was not able to submit its due amount of tax. Correspondingly, the court of the United States has appealed for the penalty including the due tax amount of the Artnell Company. CASE 2 In this case the United States court has filed a charge against the Federal partnership tax returns of the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, Ltd. In this regard, the partnership firm has not recorded its income items on the basis of deferral method, which has affected the taxation of the company. Under section 451, a lawsuit against the company was filed for not maintaining the yearly income receipt adequately. On the other hand, under section 446(c), taxpayers are liable to pay the computed taxable income. In this regard, the United States court has recognized that $125,000 sponsor fee was unpaid. In this case, petitioner has kept all the record related to the income tax return on the accrual basis. The U.S. Supreme Court has identified the problem regarding the income of the firm. In this regard, the Supreme Court of the U.S. has sought for the cash receipts of includible amount. Moreover, during the inspection the Commissioner of the U.S. Supreme Court had asked for the receipts regarding installments including the due amounts as well as total payable amounts. During that phase the company has unable to show the gross income for the year. At the same time, due to deferral of prepaid income, company was not able to reflect its deferral income. Thus, under the section 41

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Provide an explanation that reconciles this research finding with Coursework

Provide an explanation that reconciles this research finding with expectancy theory - Coursework Example Expectation theory operates on the premise that people choose a certain course of action because they find it more rewarding because of the desirable outcome. This desirable outcome can come in several ways either that the individual will become more successful and/or that there is remuneration that awaits for choosing such course of action. We can set the example in a sales organization where sales people are given high quotas which entail high compensation in the form of commissions and salaries and other perks (including recognition and possible promotion) and mediocre quotas where they are only given basic pay. Sales people will tend to prefer the more difficult goal of having high quota because its outcome is more rewarding and desirable. In sum, when difficult goals are established that it is more rewarding and has more desirable outcome, individuals would prefer it rather than mediocre goals that has little reward or less desirable

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Seven elements of service marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Seven elements of service marketing - Essay Example The paper will analyze the seven elements of service marketing in Citigroup headquartered in Charlotte, NC, and also outline the competitive advantage the service industry acquires through a successful marketing element. Service: Most banks are experiencing an era where their revenue is not dependent on the sale of money alone (Once). Services in the financial industry are intangible and involve money in varied attributes such as depositing, lending, and transfer procedures. Citigroup should select the features of the primary service which is the deposit and lending of money and the bundle of supplementary services like the online money transfer with reference to the customer’s desires. All aspects that have the potential to create value for Citigroup services should be bundled together to bring out the best customer experience. Price: Pricing is an essential feature in the marketing element of the service industry. Citigroup has to settle at prices that are affordable to the customers, and that ensure the bank is operational. Setting the price is centered on the value of the services they offer. In the service industry unlike in the product marketing, a decrease in price does not result in an increase in the customer base. The prices in the banking industry and Citigroup are dependent on the service being provided and assume the names such as interest, expenses, and commission. Place: The most relevant aspect of banking is the ability to persuade customers that their resources are available whenever they are needed (Once). A bank such as Citigroup has to ensure that their services are visible to potential customers and that existing ones have adequate channels to access their resources. Citigroup can open branches on strategic positions or partner with other financial institutions to gain a greater geographical share. Promotion: Citigroup has numerous goals that shape the way they

Examine Shakespeares presentation of Ophelia Essay Example for Free

Examine Shakespeares presentation of Ophelia Essay Throughout the play, Ophelia is treated as an inferior by the men in her life. She is instructed and also used by them to achieve their own selfish goals. As Rex Gibson states, Shakespearean women were virtually helpless pawns in the power games of their main relatives. Her tone towards them is most often submissive and accepting of their commands, although the audience is given occasional glimpses of the seemingly intelligent and opinionated young woman beneath her clichi d exterior. In the play, she is merely a side story. She has no particular role in the play rather than to reflect the traits of other characters, and this secondary importance to the plot reflects Shakespeares presentation of her. Upon Ophelias first appearance in the play, it becomes obvious that she and her brother have a close relationship. Laertes tells Ophelia, let me hear from you, to which she replies Do you doubt that? Laertes mentions Hamlet as a cause for concern, weigh what loss your honour may sustain, If with too credent ear you list his songs, Or lose your heart, or your chaste treasure open To his unmastered importunity. He believes that Hamlets intentions are dishonourable. He is quick to form this opinion, and as he feels he knows Hamlets true motives, this suggests that men of the era shared this abusive attitude towards women. While he may be expressing a genuine concern for his sisters well-being, there is a tone of authority in his voice. He is not her father, but as a male he talks down to her. His primary concern may be more for the honour of his family, which Ophelia would destroy should she conduct a relationship with Hamlet. She does however retort defensively with, Do not as some ungracious pastors do, Show me the steep and thorny way to heaven, Whiles like a puffed and reckless libertine Himself the primrose path of dalliance treads. Here she is warning him against hypocrisy and recognising that some men (ungracious pastors) are promiscuous while expecting women to be virtuous. In seeing that society has double standards, the audience is shown that there is a side to Ophelia deeper than is obvious in most of her appearances in the play. A modern audience would feel that her reply is justified, and would respect her for standing up for herself. She has a more relaxed attitude to verbalisation of her thoughts when she is in the presence of her brother, but still respects and accepts his will. In conversation with Polonius for the first time in the play, the audience sees the submissive side to Ophelia. Polonius is also quick to suspect Hamlets motives, reinforcing the suggestion that all men of this time have a common view of women. Polonius treatment of her reflects the double standards of Shakespeares society, as he at first seems disgruntled that she acts like an inexperienced green girl | Unsifted in such perilous circumstance and then goes on to say think yourself a baby, enforcing her inexperience. Ophelia implies her own inability to form an opinion I do not know my lord what I should think. This seemingly air-headed behaviour could cause much annoyance to a modern audience, whether she simply cannot think for herself or has an opinion and is too intimidated to voice it. Polonius perception of his daughter becomes clear with the statement you have taen these tenders for true pay | Which are not sterling. Tender yourself more dearly. The financial references here show that these tenders are worth nothing to Polonius unless they become cash, or stirling, in his hand. The acquisition of wealth comprises all of Ophelias uses to him. She is a possession and a tool to him. This is noted by Gibson, women were regarded as possessions, as capital to be exploited. He also harbours selfish concerns about his own social standing, and that Ophelia will tender him a fool, as her behaviour reflects upon him as a father. Ophelia concludes by submitting yet again, I shall obey, my lord. Despite the fact that Ophelia has firstly rebelled against expectations by meeting with a man without the permission of her father, or has gone against social mores (Pitt), she continues to treat her father as her superior and conform to his wishes. Again the audience witnesses the dual personality of Ophelia. This could leave an audience confused, and unsure of exactly what to think of her as a character, as her true identity remains a mystery until her death. After Hamlet advances upon her looking like he had been loosed out of hell, Ophelia runs to her father, seeking protection and comfort. She enters the room saying O my lord, my lord, I have been so affrighted. Modern audiences may draw comparisons between this and the behaviour of a small child. Not only is she treated like one by men, but at this point she proves their treatment to be right. This might anger a modern audience who could perceive her to be lacking common sense and therefore totally unable to deal with a hostile situation. To increase the antagonism of a post-feminist audience, she then goes on to relate that she was sewing in her closet at the time of incident while to a Shakespearean audience sewing was part of life for women, a modern audience would see this as a stereotypically effeminate activity being used by Ophelia to play up her helplessness. As stated by A. C. Bradley in the Victorian era, a large number of readers feel a personal kind of irritation against Ophelia; they seem unable to forgive her for not having been a heroine. While this does not represent the viewpoint of todays audience, it shows that even in Victorian times when women were still much less free than they are now, Ophelias helplessness is exaggerated to the point of irritation. We witness Ophelias utter submissiveness yet again, and her acting as if she has no thoughts of her own I do not know, | But truly I do fear it. Ophelia incessantly addresses her father submissively as my lord. It can be presumed that Ophelia has been taught to address him thusly, reflecting on Polonius as a father, who is an example of men at the time of the play. Polonius sees Ophelia as being far inferior to him. He speaks to her in short commands Come, go with me, rather than asking her to do things. He also seems to think that she is untrustworthy, as he questions her, Have you given him any hard words of late? suspecting that she has not done what he told her to do. As Ophelias letters are read aloud, she stands on the stage in silence to endure this harsh and humiliating experience. She is utterly powerless as her most intimate secrets are exposed to the King and Queen. Her father has granted her no right to privacy, to the point that he publicly proclaims and meddles in her affairs. Polonius says I have a daughter have while she is mine, this bluntly suggests his intentions to sell her, and continues Who in her duty and obedience, mark, | Hath given me this. Here, it is as if he is marketing her, making her good qualities known to the King and Queen, telling them to mark, possibly in the hopes that they approve of her as a wife to Hamlet. In this situation Polonius social standing would vastly improve. She is certainly seen by him as capital to be exploited. Upon the Kings questioning Ophelias chastity, Polonius asks him What do you think of me? This shows that in a Shakespearean society, the behaviour of a daughter was seen to be an indication of how honourable her father was, again proving that women were taught chastity, modesty, obedience and faithfulness to their husbands (Gibson), to be used as social and financial tools. Elaine Showalter accurately describes Ophelia as that piece of bait. She is used to confirm whether or not Hamlets separation from her is the cause of his madness. Before the first conversation between Hamlet and Ophelia (which is held under surveillance by Polonius and the King), Ophelia is not even given a greeting, but is spoken to only by the Queen, and exclusively about Hamlet And for your part Ophelia, I do wish That your good beauties be the happy cause Of Hamlets wildness. Their main concern is Hamlets return to his prior sane state and hope to be able to use Ophelia as a way of bringing it about. Ophelia herself has absolutely no control over events relating to her. She speaks briefly, only when spoken to, and to express her desire to see Hamlet well again Madam, I wish it may. Her father again talks to her commandingly, as if she were a dog, Ophelia, walk you here. When she is at first left with Hamlet, she remains silent onstage throughout his long monologue, until he mentions her. A conversation begins with Ophelias greeting Hamlet, Good my lord, and hereafter she uses the words my lord repetitively. When she mentions rememberances that she as longed long to re-deliver, she is shunned by Hamlet, as he says I never gave you aught. Ophelia further shows the audience that she is an intelligent young woman rather than a girl who is full of nonsense. She elaborates on her feelings for Hamlet with the words: My honoured lord, you know right well you did, And with them words of so sweet breath composed As made these things more rich. Their perfume lost, Take these again, for to the noble mind Rich gifts wax poor when givers prove unkind. There my lord. The audience sees here through her passionate statement that these words held great importance to Ophelia and that she is expressing the depth of her emotion. With Hamlet she gives the first indications of her true feelings, things that she would not share with her father. She is however belittled and mocked by Hamlet (Ha, ha, are you honest? ). Her clever response to Hamlets mad ramblings gives us another insight into the more hidden side of Ophelia. Fundamentally, however, Ophelia is a side story, and is of secondary importance to the main plot and has no story without Hamlet. She appears in only five of the plays twenty scenes (Showalter) and is used to inform the audience of what Hamlet was like before his descent into madness. As stated by Angela Pitt, Ophelias main function in the play is to illuminate a particular facet of Hamlets decline. She has known him in both friendship and gallant devotion. She fulfils this role: O what a noble mind is here oerthrown! The courtiers, soldiers, scholars, eye, tongue, sword, Th expectancy and rose of the fair state, The glass of fashion, and the mould of form. While we see here that she is articulate, is underestimated by Polonius and does have something of value to say, it is quite tragic that this outburst of expression is not of herself, but of Hamlets personality prior to his fathers death. As she is used throughout the play by men, here Shakespeare uses her as a way of imparting information to the audience. At this point in the play, the audience can sympathise with Ophelia, as the pain of rejection by a lover exists outside of time. By proving to the audience that she is intelligent and educated, she wins respect, as modern society values these qualities highly in both men and women. Just before the play, Hamlet initiates a tirade of sexual references directed toward Ophelia. It begins with heres metal more attractive, a mocking reference to her looks. He goes on to say to Ophelia Lady, shall I lie in your lap? to which she replies No my lord. He persists in trying to humiliate Ophelia with phrases such as Do you think I meant country matters? and Thats a fair thought to lie between maids legs. Ophelias responses are short and she again repeats my lord No my lord, Ay my lord, I think nothing, my lord. Her words are sharp and brief as she denies Hamlet the pleasure of provoking an outburst from her. While this repetition could show her merely being weak and submissive, as she is forced to take his insults, it can also be argued that she knows here exactly what she is doing, as she later goes on to retaliate, You are naught, you are naught Ophelias naivety must be assumed and not genuine, because later she gives as good as she gets (Pitt): Ophelia. You are keen my lord, you are keen. Hamlet. It would cost you a groaning to take off mine edge. Ophelia. Still better, and worse. Here she neglects to say my lord, which shows that her tone has changed, and she has given up trying to be tolerant of Hamlet. Ophelias descent into madness portrays her in an ironic and rather tragic light. Her condition has caused her to be more vocal and to reject authority. Now people notice that Ophelia is speaking, and try to understand what she says, when her mind is not her own nothing she says makes sense. Even though she is louder, her position is still largely unchanged her madness expresses itself through her, but does not allow her to express her own true thoughts. At the time, women who were vocal and opinionated, who challenged authority or sought freedom were often portrayed as being insane. This overly emotional, nonsensical state was also thought to be womanhood in its purest, unsuppressed form Ophelia might confirm the impossibility of representing the feminine in patriarchal discourse as other than madness, incoherence, fluidity, or silence Ophelia represents the strong emotions that the Elizabethans as well as the Freudians thought womanish and unmanly. (Showalter). The themes of her songs are death and true love the two issues that have most recently affected her. Firstly, her exploitation by Hamlet: And I a maid at your window, To be your Valentine. Then up he rose, and donned his clothes, And dupped the chamber door, Let in the maid, that out a maid, Never departed more. In Shakespearean times, it was extremely important that a woman maintained her chastity it is implied quite obviously by these songs that Ophelia did engage in sexual relations with Hamlet. This would have meant the loss of her reputation altogether. People will now take notice of these open declarations, as a woman her promiscuity is condemned, whereas a mans promiscuity (Hamlets) will be overlooked. This exposes Shakespearean societys double standards. A woman of high social standing such as Ophelia was expected even more so to exhibit virtue, and so was very vulnerable and open to condemnation, with every relationship putting her in a potentially life-destroying position. Now, when the relationship has dissolved, she is in a difficult position. Her imprisonment is particularly distressing to a modern audience, who are very used to seeing women with much more freedom. While todays morals are not quite as tight as Shakespearean morals, a modern audience will still feel a lot of sympathy for the poor abused and abandoned Ophelia. As well as being an issue of chastity, it also involves trust. She trusted Hamlet with her love and her reputation wrongly. Secondly, she sings about her fathers death: At his head a grass-green turf, At his heels a stone. His death has marked the loss of two of the men in her life who, while they were controlling and dictating, were all that she had, and both of whom she loved dearly. When Ophelia falls into the river where she eventually perishes, she does nothing to save herself. She is as passive at the moment of her death as she was throughout life, doing nothing to save herself. Gertrude is able to describe Ophelias death in detail, down to the exact type of flowers Ophelia had decked herself with (crowflowers, nettles, daisies, and long purples). This may be seen as Gertrudes expression of genuine sympathy for her fellow woman. Ophelias death can be seen as a suicide, but Gertrude, perhaps to prevent Ophelia from being denied a Christian burial, which would have deepened Laertes grief, describes her as having been one incapable of her own distress, suggesting that she fell in and simply did not care enough to get out. Ophelias last influence in the play is her funeral, where Laertes jumps into her grave in grief. Hamlet however jumps in after him, and they begin to grapple irreverently, arguing over who loved her more: Hamlet. I loved Ophelia, forty thousand brothers Could not, with all their quantity of love, Make up my sum what wilt thou do for her? Hamlet persists in trying to out-do Laertes in his love for his sister, to the point of ridiculousness Woot drink up eisel, eat a crocodile? | Ill dot. This sudden display of affection for Ophelia from Hamlet contrasts hugely with his treatment of her during her life, and seems unrealistic. Laertes grief for Ophelia is overshadowed by his desire for revenge as Hamlet has destroyed his family. The two use their love for Ophelia as an excuse to let private rivalries surface, even at her funeral. This is symbolic of how she has been used throughout the play, by Polonius to get closer to the king and by Hamlet to portray his insanity. To a Shakespearean audience, peoples treatment of Ophelia would have been typical of the way in which women were treated. Her silence and oppression would have been met with sympathy, as well the empathy of women of the time. While her situation with regards to Hamlet and his cold rejection of her still holds poignancy with a modern audience, people today may question more why she made little attempt to defend herself in certain situations, and why she so blankly followed the instructions of her father and brother at the expense of her own mental and emotional well-being. Bibliography Shakespeare, William, Hamlet, Heinemann, 1996 Pitt, Angela, Shakespeares Women, David and Charles, 1981 Gibson, Rex, Cambridge Student Guide: Hamlet, Cambridge University Press, 2002 A. C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy, 1904 Showalter, Elaine, Representing Ophelia: Women, Madness and the Responsibilities of Feminist Criticism. in New Casebooks: Hamlet, Macmillan, 1992 Eleanor Crossey Malone L6G.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Appraisal of the person centred approach

Appraisal of the person centred approach There are several therapeutic frameworks which can be used within different realms to help an individual with psychological problems they may be experiencing; cognitive-behavioural therapy, person-centred therapy or psychodynamic therapy, to name a few. Each therapy is distinct from each other in terms of methods of intervention and ideas and assumptions about the nature and sources of psychopathology. Each therapy is also, of course, considered by those who practice it, as widely applicable to the problems presented for psychotherapeutic treatment (Gabbard, Beck Holmes 2005; Feltham Horton, 2006). Within mainstream psychology, person centred therapy is often criticised because it lacks a solid theoretical and empirical foundation but in counselling and psychotherapy it remains influential. Definition and Theory The person-centred approach was established by Carl Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s. It offers a dynamic, process-focussed explanation of the development and functioning of personality, vulnerability to psychopathology, and of therapeutic growth toward psychological well being (Rogers, 1959). According to person-centred theory each individual is born with actualising tendency. This is what is described by Rogers (1951) as the built in motivation in every life form to develop to their full potential, within their own individual unique life circumstances and potentialities (Gillon, 2007). Although this is a controversial concept (Ryan, 1995; Levitt, 2008), and hence a main criticism of person-centred theory as a whole, it is a fundamental concept within the therapy; the therapy is rooted in the clients ability for awareness and self-directed change in their attitudes and behaviour (Bradley, 1999). Rogers theory of the person is made up of two concepts, the first being the organismic self. This is the true and real person that we are. Roger suggests that this is innate and consistent throughout our lives; we do not learn this concept of ourselves we just are. He postulates that it is within the organismic self where the actualising tendency exists. The other part or the person, as theorised by Rogers, is the self concept. This is the learned way of being and develops through the messages we receive from others. This begins in childhood with messages we receive from our parents and continues throughout our lives through interactions within other relationships. According to Rogers, a healthy self concept exists when we experience unconditional positive regard from the other people in our lives and are not placed under any conditions of worth. In contrast, an unhealthy self concept occurs when we are effected by interjected values and conditions of worth. In this state we often ex perience denial and distortion which are defence mechanisms which come into play when we do not fit into the conditions of worth. In Rogers theory, psychological distress happens when there is a poor fit between the organismic self and self concept i.e. there is incongruence. There is a disintegration of the self concept and there is often experience of very serious emotions such as fear, depression and anxiety. The goal of psychotherapy is to promote the self-actualization in the client. PCT utilises the presence of the actualizing tendency in the client makes it possible for the client to control and direct the therapy process, with the facilitation of the therapist. The therapist is not guiding the therapy but aiding the client through their own particular path; in person centred therapy, there are no specific interventions made by the therapist, as such. The Seven Stages of Change Through empirical research, Rogers was able to recognise identifiable features that characterise positions on a continuum of personality change effected by the process of psychotherapy. It is the belief that the client goes through the seven stages of change from incongruence to congruence in therapy which, at the end of the therapy allows them to offer themselves unconditional positive regard and trust in their organismic valuing process (Rogers, 1961). Stage 1 At this stage it is unlikely that the individual will present in a clinical or counselling setting. The person does not perceive themselves as having any problems and they have very rigid views of the world based on past experiences. An individual who does attend a therapeutic session at this stage is unlikely to return after the first session as the therapy seems pointless to them (McMillan, 2004) Stage 2 At this stage the individual has some awareness of negative feelings and is a little more able to express this. However, there is little inner reflection and often the problem is perceived to be external to them. (Cooper et al., 2007) Stage 3 This is the point where most clients enter counselling. At this stage, there is a little more inward reflection and a realisation of self-ownership, although this is not yet fully established. Often the self reflection is focussed on the past and there is a tendency to externalise present thoughts and feelings. (Cooper et al., 2007) Stage 4 According to Rogers, this is where the majority of the therapeutic work will begin. The client begins to talk about deep feelings and there is an increased tendency to to experience things in the present, although this is still often uncomfortable for the client. This is when the client begins to question their thoughts and perceptions of the world. (McMillan, 2004) Stage 5 At this stage the client has a true sense of self awareness. They can express present emotions and are critical of their own previous constructs, but often there is an acceptance e.g. That was a silly thing to do, but maybe thats alright because everyone makes mistakes? (McMillan, 2004) Stage 6 T here is now a rapid growth towards congruence and the client begins to develop unconditional positive regard for other. The previous incongruence experienced by the client is now embraced and challenged by the client. (Mearns Thorne, 2000) Stage 7 The client is now a fully functioning, self actualised individual who is empathic and shows unconditional positive regard for others. It is not necessary for the client to reach this stage and very few do. (Mearns Thorne,2000) Rogers (1967) emphasis that the number of stages are not crucial and they are loose terms with much interplay along the continuum. The Core Conditions As previously stated, the therapy is based upon the belief that the client will primarily bring about change, not the therapist, and the clients self healing will be activated as they become empowered (Casemore, 2006). Instead of making interventions, the therapist has belief in the inner resources of the client that creates the therapeutic climate for growth (Seligman, 2006). The client works within their own frame of reference and within the sessions there are six necessary and sufficient conditions which are referred to as the six Core Conditions, which must be present in order for the client to benefit from their time with the therapist and which are referred to by Rogers as necessary and sufficient (Rogers, 1957). The core conditions are not techniques or skills which can be learned but are regarded as personal attitudes or attributes experienced by the therapist, and communicated to the client (Gillon, 2007). Therapist-Client Psychological Contact One of these six core conditions is therapist-client psychological contact. This means a relationship between client and therapist must exist, and it must be a relationship in which each persons perception of the other is important (Casemore, 2006). In other words, a real relationship must be established between the therapist and Margaret, rather than simply just being in a room together. Prouty, Van Werde Porter (2002) have emphasised that such a relationship cannot simply be assumed and must be worked upon or, arguably, the whole therapeutic framework will fail. Establishing a psychological relationship with a client may be initially difficult, particularly for an individual who has previously had a bad experience of therapy, or simply finds it difficult to talk to other people about the issues they may be having, even those close to them. The rejection of help from people in pre-established relationships, such as friends or family members might suggest that there may be hesitatio n by the client, in establishing a relationship where the purpose is to gain help. Conversely, building a relationship which will provide an individual with the ability to help themselves may be appealing for such a person, and particularly when person-centred therapy removes the conditions of worth placed on an individual by their family and friends. (Todd Bohart, 1994) . The relationship between the therapist and the client is crucial to the person-centred approach and it cannot just be assumed but must be worked on (Prouty, 2002). Incongruent Client It is also a core condition that the client is in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious. It is only when this core condition is present that there is a need for change. This idea of knowledge of need for change is important, because the condition implies that, as a result of the experience of vulnerability or anxiety, the client is aware that they are encountering difficulties. (Singh Tudor, 1997) It is important for the client to be aware of their own difficulties as the therapy is based upon the client helping themselves without obvious intervention from the therapist. Without the knowledge of their problems and difficulties, it becomes impossible for the client to confront their problems and work through them. Often, the fact that an individual has asked for help from a primary care service which has referred them to therapy, or have chosen to privately visit a therapist demonstrates an awareness of their problems. If a client is not in therapy voluntarily, is host ile toward the process and the therapist, and is noncommittal about attending sessions, the likelihood of a positive outcome from the therapy diminishes drastically. Conversely, if a client enters the therapeutic relationship feeling a strong need to obtain help, are open and willing to give therapy a try, attend their sessions and establishes a helpful therapeutic relationship with their therapist, it is much more likely that they will benefit from PCT (Corsini,Wedding Dumont, 2007). Congruent Therapist Conversely, in order for the therapy to be effective the therapist must be congruent or integrated in the relationship. Congruence means that the therapists outward responses match their inner awareness and feelings; that they are genuine, real, open, authentic and transparent (Casemore, 2006). Rogers (1957) stressed that congruence is not a question of the therapist blurting out compulsively every passing feeling; rather it is a state of being. These feelings should only be expressed when they are persistent and of great strength and when communication of them assists the therapeutic process (Rogers, 1966, p185). By building this self-awareness not only does the therapist build trust with the client but it also reduces the likelihood that a therapists own experiences in relation to a client, such as distress or anger, will not be influenced by his/her own incongruence and thus conditions of worth being imposed. (Gillon, 2007) For example, if there is a persistent feeling of irritati on from the therapist in regard to how they perceive their clients behaviour, (such as the client rejecting help from family members being perceived as avoiding taking responsibilities for their own problems) this issue will need to be addressed in order to maintain congruence in the therapist in the relationship, and hence maintain a central core condition, to enable effective therapy sessions. The concept of phenomenology must be taken into account in such a situation. The multiple reality theory is defined as a subjective view of the world, constructed by each individuals collective experiences (Rogers, 1951). As a result, no other human being can possibly determine what is the correct or incorrect behaviour for any other individual. Therefore, the therapist must respect this, remain non-directive and supportive, and allow each individual the freedom to live according to this reality and to make all decisions about their growth and direction. (Kensit, 2000) It is notable that this feeling will have an effect on the core condition of congruence which the therapist must bring to the relationship within therapy. It is important for a therapist to be aware of what inner experiences to expose to the client during therapy and in what manner to do so. (Gillon, 2007) Taking the previous example of a feeling of irritation in the therapist, it can be seen that this feeling the ther apist is experiencing is not only putting the therapeutic relationship at risk but it may be an option, if this feeling persists, for the therapist to disclose this feeling to the client in a tactful way, as it may ultimately aid her in therapy. Congruent therapist self disclosure has been shown to achieve a more favourable perception of the therapist, and a higher attractiveness perception, as well as a greater desire to choose a therapist practicing congruent self disclosure over incongruent self disclosure. (Knox, Hess, Peterson Hill, 1997; Nyman Daugherty, 2001; Audet Everall, 2003) Self disclosure not only allows the therapist to remain in a congruent state in the therapeutic relationship but also a self disclosure by the therapist in relation to an issue which the client may be having difficulties confronting, may encourage the self healing process. However, within this solution lies a further problem, as sharing this information may evoke strong feelings from the therapist which could damage the therapeutic relationship which has been built with the client. It is a decision which the therapist must regard carefully and personally make the decision as to whether or not to share the information, by balancing the benefits and risks of this self-disclosure. Further to this it is important for the therapist to decide how much information is sufficient to share without overwhelming their client, or placing conditions of worth within the relationship. As previously mentioned, studies have shown that congruent therapist self disclosure is often a positive thing and so should not be shied away from (Knox, Hess, Peterson Hill, 1997; Nyman Daugherty, 2001; Audet Everall, 2003). However, it must be emphasised the importance of careful consideration before engaging in this technique, as if the self disclosure is misread by the client the relationship will be jeopardised, and the clients progress halted. Unconditional Positive Regard Another important core condition which must be present during a therapy session is that the therapist should experience unconditional positive regard for the client. This means that the therapist offers the person respect, acceptance (although it does not have to be approval) caring and appreciation regardless of the clients attitude or behaviour (Gillon, 2007). This non-judgemental attitude and acceptance of the client is important because it challenges the clients beliefs that they are only valued if they behave as required by significant others (conditions of worth). There is no longer any need for the client to shy away from aspects of their inner self which may be painful or that they may see as shameful because they learn that it is possible to be truly themselves and still be accepted. This is an important aspect of person centred therapy as it opens up the opportunity for the client to explore their anxieties and accept them within their own frame of reference. This, in turn, allows for the self-healing process which is central to person-centred therapy. Empathic Understanding Another core condition which must be achieved is that the therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the clients internal frame of reference and endeavours to communicate this experience to the client. In other words, the therapist enters into the clients world as if it were their own and has increased awareness of how an event or situation has affected the client. This will show the client that they understand them and that their views, feelings and thoughts have value. This will henceforth reinforce the idea that the client is accepted and will allow the therapeutic relationship to flourish to enable a deeper exploration of the self concept. This empathic understanding is often demonstrated to the client through the use of techniques such as reflection and paraphrasing. It has been demonstrated through meta analyses that empathy is a core component of most therapeutic approaches, despite various definitions and uses (Feller and Coccone , 2003). However, contrary to the idea s of Rogers, empathy appears to be necessary, but, not sufficient, for therapy to produce positive outcomes. An extensive review of research on empathy over the 1950s to the 1990s (Duan Hill, 1997), notes a decline in academic interest in the concept of empathy in therapy, since the 1980s. They found that that this appeared to stem from continuing methodological problems, which generally appeared to arise from difficulty is defining the various aspects of empathy. A further meta-study, which examined commonalities across various therapy types, found further support for the idea of empathy as a core concept throughout therapies (Beutler, 2000). As above, this does not require the therapist to experience the same emotions as the client, but to understand and respect those emotions. Client Perception of UPR and Empathic Understanding Arguably, the most important condition is that the client perceives this unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding of the therapist through the way the therapist is in session. This can be demonstrated through warmth, and techniques such as reflection, paraphrasing and clarifying. Not only will this reassure the client that they are being understood and so do not have to explain themselves, but it may also trigger further realisations about thoughts and feelings, which in turn will help the client to move through the self healing process with the prospect of increasing congruence. Todd and Bohart (1994) studied a group of patients in psychiatric care, suffering from varying degrees of psychopathology. It was found that when a therapist did not put conditions of worth on (i.e., judge) the patient they responded with more confidence and less hostility. This is an important finding when relating this therapeutic approach to practice, particularly for individuals who may b e reluctant to obtain help from friends and family; who are often the source of conditions of worth. By removing these conditions of worth an individual may be more open to getting help for their problems. As these conditions are actively removed in a person-centred therapy session, it is suggested that such an environment will encourage an individual to feel comfortable enough to open up and explore their thoughts and feelings within their own internal framework. The theory and necessary and sufficient core conditions which construct person-centred therapy will allow an individual to increase congruence and ultimately reduce the levels of psychological distress they feel. Through talking to the therapist within a session which incorporates the six necessary and sufficient conditions, it is hoped they will go through the seven stages of change and at the end of the therapy can be regarded as a fully functioning person, as described by Rogers (1961). Criticism and Limitations A frequent criticism of this approach is that the core conditions as outlined by Rogers, is what any good therapist does anyway. Superficially, this criticism reflects a misinterpretation of the real challenges of consistently manifesting unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding and congruence (Malhauser, 2010). This is particularly the case in regard to congruence, to the extent that some therapeutic techniques used in some other approaches are dependent upon the therapists willingness to suppress, mentally formulate hypotheses about the client, or constantly maintain a professional front, hiding their own personal reactions, there is a real challenge in applying these techniques with the openness and honesty which defines congruence. Nevertheless, as previously discussed, much of the meta-analysis research being carried out is showing the common factor of an accepting therapeutic relationship to be the pivotal aspect of any therapeutic approach. A PCT therapist may often run the risk, due to the nature of the role of the therapist in the relationship, to be very supportive of their clients but not challenge them. If a therapist directs the client to discuss contents that the therapist believes to be central to the process, the therapy is not client-centered. If the therapist arranges the ways in which clients relate to their concerns or to how they express those concerns, the therapy is directive and not client-centered. In this respect, client-centered therapy stands alone within the family of person-centered and humanistic therapies (Witty, 2007). Kahn (1999) discusses the concept of nondirectivity in person-centered theory. He argues that, since personal and theoretical biases are unavoidable, it is impossible for a therapist to be consistently nondirective. Furthermore, the concept of nondirectivity, with its focus on the psychology of the client, implies that person-centered therapy is a one-person rather than a two-per son psychology. The article quotes therapists who believe that when a clients autonomy is respected, a wide variety of therapeutic interventions are possible. The argument is made that therapist shortcomings may be a more relevant concept than nondirectivity. With the fallibility of the therapist and a respect for the autonomy of the client, Kahn postulates that therapeutic responses can become more flexible and innovative, increasing the power of the person-centered approach. It has been said that the only limitation to person centred therapy is the limitations of the therapist themselves (Dryden, 2007) and it is postulated that perhaps this is the key to effective person centred therapy. There has been criticism of the nondirective attitude associated with this particular therapeutic approach. There is also research that indicates that the personality of the therapist is a better predictor of success than the techniques used (Boeree, 2006). In saying that the techniques used are just as personal to the therapist and are often effected by their personality. As laid out in the core conditions, the therapist themselves must be congruent and authentic and so therefore must be constantly aware of their role in a session. It is important that self disclosure is considered and evaluated before brought into a session but similarly it is important that to both challenge and reassure the client, that it does occur at some point. It is a difficult balance to get ri ght but is crucial to the outcome of therapy for the client. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is often regarded as the most effective therapeutic framework practiced by counselling psychologists. This is due to high volumes of research into the effectiveness of CBT to treat a wide range of psychological problems which individuals may have. A recent development has seen NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) recommending computerised cognitive-behavioural therapy as a cost-effective and clinically effective practice (NICE, 2006; Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Although the benefits and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapies are undeniable, and cannot be overlooked, it has, as with any therapy, its limitations and comparative research is showing that very little actually stands between CBT and other therapeutic therapies. The person-centred approach has been successful in treating many different psychological problems including anxiety disorders, alcoholism, psychosomatic problems, agoraphobia, interpersonal d ifficulties, depression, and personality disorders (Bozarth, Zimring Tausch, 2002). It is not, however, a suitable therapy to help someone who is suffering from more severe mental health issues such as severe psychosis, as it is unlikely that they will be able to engage with their own thoughts enough to guide their own therapy. As previously stated, it has also been shown to be as equally effective as CBT when used to help an individual who is suffering from major depression (Osatuke, Glick, Stiles, Greenberg, Shapiro Barkham, 2005); with the client in the aforementioned study being helped using CBT managing her needs better and the client being helped using person-centred therapy, accepting her needs more. The authors concluded that despite the qualitative differences, the success was equal in each case and suggest that there is more than one way of being psychologically healthy. A recent study (Stiles, Barham, Twigg, Mellor-Clark Cooper, 2006) into the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural, person-centred and psychodynamic therapies as practised in the NHS, took into account over 1300 patients, across 58 NHS care sites over a period of 3 years. They found that each of the therapeutic frameworks, either by itself or in conjunction with another therapy such as art, averaged similar marked improvement in individuals well being. This finding suggests that different approaches tend to have equivalent outcomes, an idea which is also demonstrated in other research in the area. (Shadish, Navarro, Matt Phillips, 2000; Holmes, 2002; Stirman, DeRubeis, Crits-Christoph Brody, 2003). For example, Lambert and Bergin (1994) carried out a meta-analysis of studies on psychotherapeutic efficacy, in which they found that there is only a small amount of evidence which weights one particular therapy above another and that most of a clients improvement is related to factors c ommon to all therapeutic approaches. They also propose that it is not the form of therapeutic style a therapist uses, but the therapist themselves which is the main impacting factor on the outcome of a therapeutic treatment. This finding can be considered to be a result of the Dodo bird verdict; a phrase conceived by Rosenzweig (1936). It is often extensively referred to in literature as a consequence of the common factors theory, which proposes that the specific techniques that are applied in different therapeutic approaches serve a very limited purpose and that most of the positive effect that is gained from psychotherapy is due to factors that the schools have in common. This is often the therapeutic effect of having a relationship with a therapist who is warm, respectful and empathic. Meta-analyses by Luborsky (2002) shows that all therapies are considered equal and all must have prizes. On the other hand, scientists who believe in empirically supported therapies (EST) challenge the concept. Chambless (2002) emphasises the importance of remembering that specific therapies are there for specific people in specific situations with specific problems and postulates that grouping problems and therapies, d etracts from the overall importance and individuality of therapy as a whole. Whilst there is much agreement about this, the Dodo bird verdict is still very much accepted within research and is especially important because policymakers have to decide on the usefulness of investing in the diversity of psychotherapies that exist, as demonstrated by the rise of CBT as the therapy of choice in the NHS. Cooper, Elliot, Stiles and Bohart (2008) released a joint statement at the Conference of the World Association for Person-Centred Psychotherapies and Counselling in which they stated that they believe it is scientifically irresponsible to continue to imply and act as though CBTs are more effective than other therapies. They base this opinion on the fact that more academic researchers subscribe to a CBT approach than any other therapy and these researchers get more research grants and publish more studies on the effectiveness of CBT, in comparison to researchers in other areas of psychother apeutic practice. They also take into consideration the previously mentioned research in which scientifically valid studies demonstrate that when established therapies are compared to one another the most common result is that both therapies are equally effective. In conclusion, the person-centred approach is an effective and well researched therapeutic method. It has been shown to have no less standing or effectiveness than cognitive behavioural therapy, despite being pushed to one side within the NHS. It is suggested that an increased scientific research evidence base may increase the likelihood of it being propelled to the same stature within health services as CBT, however as the therapy does not use standardised assessment, measures or clearly defined goals, it would be difficult to measure the effectiveness to the same degree. It is also argued that by researching the approach in such a scientific way it is deviating away from the core principles of the approach itself, which are humanistic. The principles of person-centred therapy are applicable out with the therapeutic relationship and the core conditions which Rogers defines as being necessary for effective treatment, are a valuable tool in allowing an individual to gain self awarenes s and aid their own recovery. It is successful in numerous settings such as family and couples counselling, as well as teaching and management and has been shown to be effective in conflict resolution. The person-centred approach is continuing to develop e.g. relational depth and configurations as outlined by Mearns and Thorne (2000), and will undoubtedly continue to do so with the continued work of key psychologists in the field. Word Count: 4897

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Jeffersonian Republicans Vs. Federalists Essay -- essays research pape

As the young colonies of America broke away from their mother country and began to grow and develop into an effective democratic nation, many changes occurred. As the democracy began to grow, two main political parties developed, the Jeffersonian Republicans and the Federalists.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Each party had different views on how the government should be run. The Jeffersonian Republicans believed in strong state governments, a weak central government, and a strict construction of the Constitution. The Federalists opted for a powerful central government with weaker state governments, and a loose interpretation of the Constitution. Throughout the years, the political parties have grown, developed, and even dispersed into totally new factions. Many of the inconsistencies and changes can be noted throughout the presidencies of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When Thomas Jefferson entered office in 1800, he came in with lots of new ideas and goals as the president. Jefferson believed in a smaller central government with stronger state governments. He was a Republican and favored the view of strict construction. He believed that, â€Å"Our country is too large to have all its affairs directed by a single government†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Document A). Jefferson and his Republican party believed in a government that was going to work for the people and that was going to have them at its best interests. That is why they believed in having stronger state governments, they were closer to home and to the people they were governing, therefore they knew more of what the public needed. Document B also refers to strict construction and Jefferson’s beliefs. It talks about the freedoms that were stated in the constitution, mainly, the freedom of religion. Jefferson believes that the federal government should not have any say in dea ling with religion of the people. The Republicans believed that any law stated in the Constitution should be strictly followed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As Jefferson’s presidency wore on, the Jeffersonian Republican beliefs began drifting farther away from the original ideals they began with. Some of the decisions made by Jefferson proved to follow the loose construction of the Constitution of the Federalists. When he made the decision to purchase the Louisiana Territory, he never obtained congressional approval. He... ...ter the country as a whole. John Randolph, a Democratic Republican of the time even suggested that the Jeffersonian Republicans were taking on the old Federalism principles during Madison’s term. Document F explains how, â€Å"this government created and gave power to Congress to regulate commerce†¦not to lay a duty but with a steady eye to revenue†¦Ã¢â‚¬    Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As the country grows and matures into a great nation, people realize that change is inevitable and sometimes even needed. Within the time period of 1802 to 1817, many Jeffersonian Republicans realized that their ideals and principles weren’t always best for the nation. That is why they adopted some of the ideals of the old Federalist Party. Also, during this time, the Federalists died out. As realized after the Hartford Convention, the nation did not need nor want the Federalists anymore if the Democratic Republicans could get the job done. Although people changed a great deal during this time, it seemed to be beneficial to the nation. If people had not grown and never continued to learn and aspire to what is needed, then we may have never gotten to this great nation that the United States of America is today. Jeffersonian Republicans Vs. Federalists Essay -- essays research pape As the young colonies of America broke away from their mother country and began to grow and develop into an effective democratic nation, many changes occurred. As the democracy began to grow, two main political parties developed, the Jeffersonian Republicans and the Federalists.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Each party had different views on how the government should be run. The Jeffersonian Republicans believed in strong state governments, a weak central government, and a strict construction of the Constitution. The Federalists opted for a powerful central government with weaker state governments, and a loose interpretation of the Constitution. Throughout the years, the political parties have grown, developed, and even dispersed into totally new factions. Many of the inconsistencies and changes can be noted throughout the presidencies of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When Thomas Jefferson entered office in 1800, he came in with lots of new ideas and goals as the president. Jefferson believed in a smaller central government with stronger state governments. He was a Republican and favored the view of strict construction. He believed that, â€Å"Our country is too large to have all its affairs directed by a single government†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Document A). Jefferson and his Republican party believed in a government that was going to work for the people and that was going to have them at its best interests. That is why they believed in having stronger state governments, they were closer to home and to the people they were governing, therefore they knew more of what the public needed. Document B also refers to strict construction and Jefferson’s beliefs. It talks about the freedoms that were stated in the constitution, mainly, the freedom of religion. Jefferson believes that the federal government should not have any say in dea ling with religion of the people. The Republicans believed that any law stated in the Constitution should be strictly followed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As Jefferson’s presidency wore on, the Jeffersonian Republican beliefs began drifting farther away from the original ideals they began with. Some of the decisions made by Jefferson proved to follow the loose construction of the Constitution of the Federalists. When he made the decision to purchase the Louisiana Territory, he never obtained congressional approval. He... ...ter the country as a whole. John Randolph, a Democratic Republican of the time even suggested that the Jeffersonian Republicans were taking on the old Federalism principles during Madison’s term. Document F explains how, â€Å"this government created and gave power to Congress to regulate commerce†¦not to lay a duty but with a steady eye to revenue†¦Ã¢â‚¬    Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As the country grows and matures into a great nation, people realize that change is inevitable and sometimes even needed. Within the time period of 1802 to 1817, many Jeffersonian Republicans realized that their ideals and principles weren’t always best for the nation. That is why they adopted some of the ideals of the old Federalist Party. Also, during this time, the Federalists died out. As realized after the Hartford Convention, the nation did not need nor want the Federalists anymore if the Democratic Republicans could get the job done. Although people changed a great deal during this time, it seemed to be beneficial to the nation. If people had not grown and never continued to learn and aspire to what is needed, then we may have never gotten to this great nation that the United States of America is today.